Plastic pipes - types
There are three basic types of plastic pipes:
Solid wall pipeedit
Extruded pipes consisting of one layer of a homogeneous matrix of thermoplastic material which is ready for use in a pipeline
Structured wall pipeedit
Structured-wall pipes and fittings are products which have an optimized design with regard to material usage to achieve the physical, mechanical and performance requirements. Structured Wall Pipes are tailor made solutions of piping systems, for a variety of applications and in most cases developed in cooperation with users
Pipe incorporating a flexible metallic layer as the middle of three bonded layers. Barrier pipe is used, for example, to provide additional protection for the contents passing through the pipe (particularly drinking water) from aggressive chemicals or other pollution when laid in ground contaminated by previous use.
Most plastic pipe systems are made from thermoplastic materials. The production method involves melting the material, shaping and then cooling. Pipes are normally produced by extrusion.1
Plastic pipes - standards
Plastic pipe systems fulfill a variety of service requirements. Product standards for plastics pipe systems are prepared within the CEN/TC155 standards committee. These requirements are described in a set of European Product Standards for each application alongside their specific characteristics, for example:
Conveyance of drinking water: Hygienic requirements
Conveyance of gas: Highest Safety requirements
Plastic pipes for radiant heating and floor heating: Temperature resistance over decades
Sewer applications: High chemical resistance
Plastic pipes are capable of fulfilling the specific requirement for each application. They do so over a long lifetime and with reliability and safety.citation needed The key success factor is achieved by maintaining consistently high quality levels. For plastic pipe products, these levels are defined by the different standards. Two aspects are fundamentally important for the performance of plastic pipes: flexibility and long lifetime.2
A plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage and drainage in plumbing systems. The term dates from ancient times, and is related to the Latin word for lead, "plumbum".
The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire. The Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes4 and some were also covered with lead, lead was also used for piping and for making baths. In medieval times anyone who worked with lead was referred to as a plumber as can be seen from an extract of workmen fixing a roof in Westminster Palace and were referred to as plumbers "To Gilbert de Westminster, plumber, working about the roof of the pantry of the little hall, covering it with lead, and about various defects in the roof of the little hall". Thus a person with expertise in working with lead was first known as a Plumbarius which was later shortened to plumber.